«Auslandsmarktwahl und die Einflussfaktoren darauf - Ein Thema, das Onlinehändler viel zu oft vernachlässigen!»
Internationalization is a critical task for online retailers, yet the question of how and in which order online retailers choose foreign markets has not been investigated. Based on dynamic capabilities and institutional theory, the authors identify, test and explain factors influencing the foreign market selection behavior of European online retailers. Following a dynamic, path-dependent view of the market selection process over time, the hypotheses are tested using a longitudinal database containing observations of the foreign market selection behavior of 140 online retailers in Europe, accounting for 825 market entries over 15 years. The use of a rank-ordered logistic regression model allows the observation of how different attributes contribute to overall evaluations of the attractiveness of chosen markets, assuming that online retailers attempt to maximize the utility of markets for their specific interests, in dependence of the observed factors.
The results indicate that market size, rule of law, and local market knowledge, as well as a common language and the logistics performance of a target country have a positive effect on the likelihood of selecting a target country. Although the internet is said to reduce the impact of distance, both cultural and geographic distance as well as added geographic distance still show a negative impact on the selection of foreign markets by online retailers.
«Die Key-Points der Internationalisierung: Geschwindigkeit und Schaffen von Lock-In-Effekten, um den Kunden im eigenen E-Commerce-Universum zu halten»
Numerous examples of online retailers that have internationalized shortly after their foundation indicate that they internationalize faster than and different from traditional brick-and-mortar retailers. This paper identifies and analyzes various influence factors on internationalization speed of online retailers and their impact on individual internationalization steps. Grounded in the resource-based view, the paper examines the effects of imitability of an online shop, the presence of venture capitalists, the scope of the country portfolio and distance and diversity within the country portfolio on the internationalization speed of online retailers. A Cox proportional hazards model is used to explore the effects on speed and their variations over time. Drawing on a sample of 150 online retailers (1110 market entries in 47 country markets over 19 years), this study shows significant curvilinear effects of the imitability of an online shop, as well as of the diversity and scope of the existing country portfolio and linear effects of the distance of new country markets on the length of time until the next internationalization step.
Fachbeiträge in wissenschaftlichen Zeitschriften
Schu, M.; Morschett, D. (2017): How do online retailers internationalize?, EIBAzine – International Business Perspectives, Fourth Series, No. 22, pp. 10-13, ISSN 2222-4785
Schu, M.; Morschett, D. (2017): Foreign Market Selection of Online Retailers – A path-dependent perspective on influence factors, International Business Review, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 710-723, DOI:10.1016/j.ibusrev.2017.01.001
Wagner, G.; Schramm-Klein, H.; Schu, M. (2016): Determinants and Moderators of Consumers’ Cross-Border Online Shopping Intentions, Marketing ZfP, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 214-228, DOI:10.15358/0344-1369-2016-4-214
Schu, M.; Morschett, D.; Swoboda, B. (2016): Internationalization Speed of Online Retailers: A Resource-Based Perspective on the Influence Factors, Management International Review, Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 733-757, DOI:10.1007/s11575-016-0279-610.1007/s11575-016-0279-6
Morschett, D.; Schu, M. (2014): Establishment of Online Shops by SME Retailers and Wholesalers – A Rational Decision or Institutional Pressure?, Marketing ZfP, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 107-118, http://dx.doi.org/10.15358/0344-1369_2014_2_1
Beiträge in praxisorientierten Fachmedien
Schu, M. (2019): E-Food: Die Spielarten, die Typen, die Businessmodelle, Etailment, März 2019.
Schu, M. (2019): E-Food Käufertypen: Wer kauft eigentlich Lebensmittel im Internet, Etailment, März 2019.
Schu, M. (2019): Logistik: Liefergebühren - wie die Food-Händler rechnen, Etailment, Februar 2019.
Schu, M. (2019): Erfolgsfaktor Lieferkosten und die verschiedenen Modelle, Carpathia Business Blog, Februar 2019.
Schu, M. (2018): E-Food: Welche Liefermodelle setzen sich durch, Etailment, November 2018.
Schu, M. (2018): Wie Onlinehändler ihre Auslandsmärkte wählen, in: Etailment (Hrsg.) (2018): Whitepaper Internationalisierung, März 2018.
Schu, M. (2018): Wie Onlinehändler ihre Auslandsmärkte wählen, Etailment, Februar 2018.
Bohli, D.; Schu, M. (2013): Cross-Channel Free Riding – Auswirkungen und Handlungsmöglichkeiten, Retailing & Consumer Goods Marketing, Dezember 2013.
Morschett, D.; Schu, M. (2013): Immer mehr Verbundgruppen nehmen Online-Handel auf, Retailing & Consumer Goods Marketing, Mai 2013.
Morschett, D.; Schu, M. (2011): Cross-Channel-Retailing – Eine prozessorientierte Betrachtung, Retailing & Consumer Goods Marketing, Juni 2011.
Morschett, D.; Schu, M. (2011): Internationalisierung des Online-Handels – Strategien zum Eintritt in ausländische Märkte, Retailing & Consumer Goods Marketing, Juni 2011.
«Cross-Border E-Commerce aus Kundensicht: Nutzen und Risiken»
This study contributes to research on the growing phenomenon of cross-border online search and purchase behaviours. A literature review on the determinants of cross-border online shopping indicates that research on the specific risks and benefits of cross-border online shopping is rare. Therefore, we seek to conceptualize and empirically analyse the risks and benefits, which affect cross-border online shopping intentions and the factors that are relevant moderators of these relationships. With regard to relevant moderators, cross-border experiences and beliefs, namely foreign travelling and cosmopolitism are identified. Moreover, in our analyses, we consider whether consumers have or have not shopped online across borders (experienced cross-border online shoppers and inexperienced cross-border online shoppers, respectively). Based on theoretical considerations from two research streams — Expected Utility Theory and Consumer Culture Theory — we develop a conceptual cross-border online shopping model and test it by using an online questionnaire addressing German online shoppers (N = 220). With regard to our sample, most respondents (56.8 %) had already shopped online across borders, indicating that cross-border online shopping is the norm rather than the exception. The hypotheses are tested based on partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Our results support the different roles that risks and benefits play in cross-border online shopping behaviours for marketing research. The findings show that cross-border online search and purchase behaviours are primarily affected by consumers’ benefits, and, in contrast to previous studies, that consumers’ perceived risks become less important when benefits are incorporated into the analysis. In particular, our results suggest that consumers value the specific benefits that foreign online shops offer, e. g., a wide selection of products or exclusive brands. A relevant finding for retail practices is that for online shoppers low prices are not the main benefit of shopping abroad online. In addition, our analyses provide insights into the moderating effects of foreign travelling and cosmopolitanism on the intentions to perform cross-border online searches or to make cross-border online purchases. Both significant moderators extend the existing research — which has not yet examined moderators at all — as well as our understanding of consumers’ cross-border online shopping. The findings support a significant positive moderating effect of foreign travelling on the link between perceived benefits and cross-border online purchase intentions which suggests that foreign travelling underlines the relevance of the perceived benefits of foreign retailers’ offerings. Cosmopolitanism influences the effects of perceived benefits (though not those of perceived risks) on the intention to perform cross-border online searches and the intention to make cross-border online purchases.
«Druck aus der eigenen Branche und Key-Player als Vorreiter - Gründe, warum KMUs in den Online-Handel einsteigen»
Online shopping is a trend in almost all retail and wholesale sectors and enjoys remarkable growth rates. Many retailers and wholesalers have introduced online sales channels in recent years or are planning to do so in the near future. SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises) are assumed to lag behind in the adoption of these modern distribution techniques. The aim of this paper is to investigate factors that influence the intention of an SME to launch an online shop – in particular, the relevance of institutional pressure. A partial least squares structural equations model is used based on the Technology Acceptance Model and is extended with elements from the neo-institutionalist approach. Drawing on a sample (n) of 864 SMEs from different sectors of retail and wholesale trade, 52.8 % of the variance of the intention to launch an online shop is explained with the proposed model. The results indicate that the perceived usefulness and mimetic and coercive isomorphism influence the intention to establish an online channel.
Meine Studien und Beiträge
Fachbeiträge auf Konferenzen
Schu, M.; Morschett, D.; Jovanovic, J. (2016): Influence Factors on the Market Selection of Online Retailers - a Dynamic Perspective, Presentation at the European International Business Academy Conference (EIBA), December 2-4, Vienna/Austria.
Hennart, J.-F.; Hagen, B; Majocchi, A.; Zuccella, A.; Schwens, C.; Schu, M.; Morschett, D., Nummela, N. (2016): What Determines a Firm's Speed, Scope, and Intensity of Internationalization?, Panel Discussion at the European International Business Academy Conference (EIBA), December 2-4, Vienna/Austria.
Wagner, G.; Schramm-Klein, H., Schu, M. (2016): An Investigation of the Determinants of Cross-Border Online Shopping from Consumers' Perspective, Presentation at the European International Business Academy Conference (EIBA), December 2-4, Vienna/Austria.
Schu, M.; Morschett, D.; Schramm-Klein, H. (2016): What Influences the Internationalization Speed of Online Retailers? A Dynamic Perspective, Presentation at the Academy of International Business (AIB) 2016 Annual Meeting, June 25-30, New Orleans/USA.
Schu, M.; Morschett, D.; Schramm-Klein, H. (2016): Influence Factors on the Market Selection of Online Retailers - A Dynamic Perspective, Presentation at the Academy of International Business (AIB) 2016 Annual Meeting, June 25-30, New Orleans/USA.
Schramm-Klein, H.; Wagner, G.; Schu, M. (2016): Motivators, Inhibitors and Moderators of Cross-Border Online Shopping, Presentation at the Academy of International Business (AIB) 2016 Annual Meeting, June 25-30, New Orleans/USA.
Schu, M.; Morschett, D. (2015): Foreign Market Selection of Online Retailers – A Path-dependent Perspective on Influence Factors, Presentation at the 13th Vaasa Conference on International Business 2015, August 26-28, Vaasa/Finland.
Schu, M.; Morschett, D. (2015): What determines the Speed of Online Retailers' Internationalization?, Presentation at the 18. EAERCD (European Association for Education and Research in Commercial Distribution) Conference 2015, July 01-03, Rennes/France.
Schu, M.; Morschett, D. (2014): Internationalization Speed of Online Retailers – A Resource-based Perspective on the Influence Factors, Presentation at the European International Business Academy Conference (EIBA), December 11-13, Uppsala/Sweden. Nominated for the Reward of Excellence for the best overall IB Paper presented at the EIBA Annual Conference 2014.
Schu, M. (2014): Internationalization Speed of Online Retailers – A Resource-based Perspective on the Influence Factors, Presentation at the Tagung Handelsforschung 2014, October 16-18, Trier/Germany.
Schu, M.; Morschett, D.; Hälsig, F; Swoboda, B. (2014): Is the decision of SMEs to establish an online shop influenced by institutional pressure? Presentation at the 43. EMAC (European Marketing Academy) Conference, June 3-6, Valencia/Spain.
Schu, M; Morschett, D. (2013): Establishment of Online Shops by SME Retailers and Distributors – A Rational Decision or Institutional Pressure from the Environment? Presentation at Congrès de l’académie de l’entrepreneuriat et de l’innovation, October 22-25, Fribourg/Switzerland.
Schu, M.; Morschett, D. (2013): Establishment of Online Shops by SME Retailers and Distributors – A Rational Decision or Institutional Pressure? Presentation at the EAERCD Conference, July 3-5, Valencia/Spain.